ANP 214 WINTER 2005




  1. Phil had to have his arm amputated after an accident. He tells you that he can sometimes still feel pain in his fingers even though the hand is gone. He says this is especially true when he bumps the stub of his arm where it is amputated. How can this be?


  1. Harry has a biking accident and injures his back. He is examined by a doctor who notices that Harry cannot feel pin pricks in his left foot but can feel the sensation in his right foot as well as his right and left arms and thorax. There appear to be no problems with the motor activity in any of his appendages. The physician tells Harry that he thinks a portion of the spinal cord may be compressed and is causing these symptoms. Where is the problem probably located?


  1. Many individuals show allergic reactions to bee and wasp stings.  Sometimes anaphylactic shock can ensue following exposure to these venoms, characterized by constriction of the respiratory passages and swelling of the throat.  Would acetylcholine or epinephrine be more helpful in relieving these symptoms?  Why?


  1. Which type of parasympathetic receptor relies upon G-protein activity?  Several different types of toxins are agonists for these types of receptors, and will therefore bind to the receptor.  What types of symptoms might be observed in a patient suffering from poisoning by such a toxin?


  1. Given your knowledge of the autonomic nervous system, describe how certain medicines would be effective in treating hypertension (high blood pressure).  Be specific—what type of receptors would be involved, where are they located, and what do they do?


  1.  Are the effects of parasympathetic stimulation localized and of short duration, or generalized and of long duration?  Explain.


  1. How would a molecule that blocks the action of adenyl cyclase affect the sense of olfaction?  Explain.


  1. Explain what the so-called  “blind spot” is.  Why is it that we don’t perceive our blind spots as “holes” in our field of vision?


  1. Close examination of an effector organ shows that it receives innervation by way of two neurons. The first is located in the spinal cord and synapses with a second in a chain ganglion. Chemical analysis indicates that the postsynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine and that the effector has many cholinergic receptors. Based upon this information, what is the effector organ most likely to be?


  1. Be able to describe four visceral reflexes (two each from the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions).


  1. Explain how you wake up from a sleep state.


  1. What would hypersecretion of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in?


  1. What is a sensory homunculus?  What do the proportions seen in a sensory homunculus indicate?


  1. Give two ways in which hypersensitivity to pain might occur.


  1. Contrast the two types of adaptation that occur in receptors.  Explain where adaptation can occur, and give an example of each type of adaptation.


  1. What is consolidation?  How can consolidation occur?